Free-surface effect

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Free Surface Effect

Free surface effect is the dynamic movement of liquids or bulk cargo (ie grain, ore, crushed rock, that may move like a liquid)in a vessels holds or tanks. The sloshing of fluids while the vessel is rolling causes the vessels center of gravity to move thus reducing the righting moment achieved by immersing more of the hull, thus slowing the vessels return to upright. The free surface effect can be mitigated by traveling with tanks / compartments either completely full or completely empty, baffling of tanks can also slow the movement of the fluids thus reducing the effect.

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